Les orchidées et les insectes

Préambule

 

Toutes les orchidées ont inventé le même type de fleur. Une fleur extraordinairement sophistiquée mise au point semble t-il pour vivre en bonne intelligence avec les insectes.

Le principe du mariage des plantes et des insectes, nous le connaissons bien…

Les insectes se nourrissent du nectar que produisent les plantes et le piétinent, embarquant du coup le pollen, le transportant malgré eux sur le pistil d'autres fleurs, ce qui assure la fécondation.

En cela l'orchidée est supérieure à toute autre plante, dans son déploiement de moyens mis en œuvre pour attirer le messager. Les insectes ont besoin d'être guidés dans leur atterrissage et le label est parfaitement adapté pour que l'insecte puisse se poser.


Mais certaines orchidées sont allées jusqu’au bout de l'idée et ont parfaitement transformé l'aspect de ce label en insecte (araignée, moucheron, guêpe…).

 

Alors comment l'insecte ne peut il pas être attiré par une fleur odorante, balisée et qui a exactement l'aspect de la femelle?

Tout y est.

La forme, la couleur, le toucher, les poils du label adoptant exactement la même disposition que celle de la femelle de l'insecte. L'orchidée va même jusqu'à synthétiser le parfum dont se sert la femelle pour attirer le mâle. L'insecte se pose donc et tente de se reproduire avec la fleur.

 

Cependant, il arrive quand même que le piège soit beaucoup moins sophistiqué…

Le sabot de vénus par exemple (orchidée d’Europe), possède un label à l'aspect d’une cuve. L'insecte tombe à l’intérieur et ne peut plus sortir que par un petit orifice placé à un endroit bien précis! Il est alors obligé de ramasser le pollen, une technique des plus fabuleuses...

Dans un premier temps, pas question que le pollen soit éparpillé par le vent, l’orchidée en fait donc une masse unique agglutinée.

Ensuite, pas question que l'insecte perde le paquet en route. Un ciment spécial est alors fabriqué par une glande, collant ainsi le pollen sur le corps de l’insecte et l’empêchant de se détacher.

Finalement un dispositif incline la masse de pollen en vol pour lui permettre de tomber, au terme du voyage, précisément sur le stigmate visqueux d'une autre orchidée.

Une fois l’orchidée fécondée, elle n’a plus besoin de ses fleurs et peut alors se permettre de faner…

 

Pour plus de détails sur la manière dont les orchidées dupent leurs pollinisateurs, je vous invite à lire l'article de Michael Pollan écrit pour le  National Geographic:

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NE PARTEZ PAS LES
MAINS VIDES ! Recevez
gratuitement :

  • Le guide "Les 7 éléments fondamentaux pour réussir à cultiver son orchidée en intérieur."






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Qui suis-je?

Bienvenue sur The Orchid Telegraph !

Je m'appelle Alexandra Sarah et je partage ici ma passion pour les orchidées qui est née il y a à peu près deux ans déjà. Sur ce blog, je partagerai mon expérience, mes coups de coeur ainsi que mes échecs et apporterai toutes les informations nécessaires pour que vous puissiez profiter pleinement de vos précieuses orchidées et que vous ne fassiez pas les mêmes erreurs que moi.

N'hésitez pas à laisser des commentaires sous les articles si vous avez la moindre question ou à me contacter sur la page Facebook de The Orchid Telegraph.

Et si vous avez un petit moment à m'accorder, je vous demanderais de prendre ces quelques secondes pour répondre au questionnaire ci-dessous, ce qui me permettra de toujours répondre au mieux à vos attentes.

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