6 méthodes de multiplication d’une orchidée - Séparation des keikis

Avez vous déjà ressenti l’ennui dans votre passion pour les orchidées? Vous est il déjà arrivé de penser que vous en avez fait le tour, que vous avez brillamment contourné toutes les difficultés que vous avez rencontrées?

 

Je pense que oui. Et c’est tout à fait normal. Je pense même que c’est ici que se trouve la différence entre un passionné d’orchidées et un amateur :

LE CHALLENGE!
 

Non la taille d’une collection ne définit pas un passionné. En effet, qui peut se vanter de posséder une serre de culture avec une collection comptant quelques centaines de plants?

Très peu j’imagine. Pourtant cela ne veut pas dire que vous n’êtes pas passionné.

Malgré le petit nombre de plants que vous possédez (une trentaine en appartement, ça commence déjà à prendre de la place…) vous y mettez énormément de coeur, passez des heures entières à faire des recherches. Ce que vous voulez, c’est passer à l’étape suivante. Celle qui vous sortira de votre zone de confort, l’étape challenge.

 

Commander une orchidée rare, difficile à cultiver, à faire fleurir ou tout simplement difficile à maintenir en vie est un risque.

Vu le temps que vous avez passé à trouver un producteur et le prix que vous avez mis dedans, mieux vaut ne pas se rater, vous n’êtes pas d’accord?

 

Un risque qui nous emballe tous!

 

Voilà ce qui emplit d'enthousiasme un passionné d’orchidées. Se heurter à quelque chose qu’il n’a jamais rencontré, dans lequel il n’est pas expert. Un nouveau défi donc de nouvelles connaissances.

La multiplication des orchidées entre rapidement dans le champs des défis que les passionnés d’orchidées se posent. 

 

Il m’a peut-être fallu compter deux ou trois mois avant de commencer à m’intéresser aux méthodes de multiplication des orchidées et de me lancer. Bien sûr, ce fut un échec cuisant d’autant plus que je n’ai pas commencé par la plus simple : les semis.

 

Voici donc les 6 méthodes de multiplication d’une orchidée :

 

  1. Les keikis
  2. La division des orchidées sympodiales
  3. La division des orchidées monopodiales
  4. Le bouturage
  5. L’utilisation de vieux pseudobulbes
  6. Les semis

 

Mais parce que certaines de ces méthodes de multiplication méritent leurs propres lignes, j'ai décidé de vous préparer une série de quelques articles, chacun développant dans le détail, une ou plusieurs de ces méthodes. 

 

Commençons par la multiplication par les keikis

 

Multiplier une orchidée grâce à un keiki

 

Un keiki est un rejet d’une orchidée dite « le plant mère » qui apparaît généralement sur ses parties aériennes, mais toujours à partir d’un oeil. Ce sera sur une hampe pour un phalaenopsis ou sur une cannes pour un dendrobium.

Le keiki sera alors un clone de la plante mère. Il arrive aussi que des rejets partent de la base de la plante. Cela m’est arrivé sur une vanda et un Phalaenopsis. Certains amateurs préfèrent ne pas appeler cela un keiki, mais le rejet n’en reste pas moins un clone de la plante mère qui utilise son énergie pour finalement développer son propre système racinaire.

 

Mais nous verrons ici comment séparer un keiki « aérien » de la plante-mère.

 

1. Comment séparer un keiki de la plante mère

Avant de séparer un keiki il faut être bien certain que celui-ci aura l’énergie suffisante pour continuer son développement par lui même. Pour en être sûr, ne séparez le keiki que lorsqu'il possède au moins 3 feuilles et 3 ou 4 racines mesurant au minimum 5 à 6 centimètres de long. Bien sûr, plus vous attendez plus vous laissez de chances à votre keiki de résister au choc.

Si l’on prend l’exemple de ces deux keikis, on peut voir qu’il serait aisé de séparer le keiki de droite qui est déjà très vigoureux avec plus d’une dizaine de racines suffisamment longues pour tirer les nutriments dont la plante aurait besoin une fois séparée.

En ce qui concerne le petit keiki sur la gauche, il serait prématuré de le séparer tout de suite de la plante mère car même s’il possède déjà trois feuilles, son système racinaire n’est pas suffisamment développé pour qu’il puisse se débrouiller tout seul.

 

2. A quel niveau dois je séparer le keiki de la plante mère?

Il vous faudra couper au niveau de la hampe (plante mère) à au moins 1 cm de chaque côté de la base du keiki.

Si l’on reprend la photo du dessus, voilà ce que ça donnerait :

 

3. Comment rempoter un keiki?

Le mieux pour rempoter un keiki est de choisir un support en sphaigne uniquement. Le keiki, lorsqu’il était encore accroché à la plante mère puisait absolument tout ce dont il avait besoin à travers elle, à commencer par l’eau.

Ainsi en le disposant dans un milieu uniquement composé de sphaigne, vous lui assurez un accès constant à une source d’eau. Dans un mélange normal d’écorces de pin, de sphaigne et de billes d’argiles (par exemple), le keiki n’aurait pas accès à suffisamment d’eau pour se développer et les racines se flétriraient rapidement pour finir par se dessécher. 

Utilisez un pot en plastique transparent pour orchidées. Celui-ci vous permettra de suivre l’évolution des racines. En ce qui concerne le diamètre du pot, choisissez en pas très grand. Un pot de 8cm de diamètre et de 6cm de hauteur fera l’affaire.

 

4. A quelle fréquence arroser le keiki?

La sphaigne devra toujours être humide mais, attention, jamais trempée! Cela ferait pourrir les racines?

 

5. Combien de temps dois-je laisser le keiki dans ce milieu uniquement composé de sphaigne?

Vous verrez qu’une fois placé dans la sphaigne le système racinaire de votre keiki se développera très rapidement et vous aurez alors affaire à une orchidée à part entière.

Je vous conseille d’attendre que les racines aient occupé une grande partie du pot avant de le rempoter et de le disposer dans un mélange à base d’écorces. Elles seront alors suffisamment nombreuses et robustes pour supporter le changement de milieu.

 

Attention une dernière chose je vous conseille de ne pas apporter d’engrais à votre keiki, cela le brûlerait certainement, du moins au début.
Attendez un petit peu que son système racinaire se soit adapté « à la vie en solitaire » et bien développé.

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NE PARTEZ PAS LES
MAINS VIDES ! Recevez
gratuitement :

  • Le guide "Les 7 éléments fondamentaux pour réussir à cultiver son orchidée en intérieur."






Je hais les spams autant que vous: votre adresse email ne sera jamais cédée ni revendue. En vous inscrivant ici, vous recevrez des articles, vidéos, offres commerciales, podcasts et autres conseils pour vous aider à prendre soin de vos orchidées et à vous imprégner de leur monde. Vous pouvez vous désabonner de cette liste à tout moment.

Qui suis-je?

Bienvenue sur The Orchid Telegraph !

Je m'appelle Alexandra Sarah et je partage ici ma passion pour les orchidées qui est née il y a à peu près deux ans déjà. Sur ce blog, je partagerai mon expérience, mes coups de coeur ainsi que mes échecs et apporterai toutes les informations nécessaires pour que vous puissiez profiter pleinement de vos précieuses orchidées et que vous ne fassiez pas les mêmes erreurs que moi.

N'hésitez pas à laisser des commentaires sous les articles si vous avez la moindre question ou à me contacter sur la page Facebook de The Orchid Telegraph.

Et si vous avez un petit moment à m'accorder, je vous demanderais de prendre ces quelques secondes pour répondre au questionnaire ci-dessous, ce qui me permettra de toujours répondre au mieux à vos attentes.

Le questionnaire